This page contains detailed information about the Prescription Only Medications (POM) available in the online shop.
Please click on the following links to jump to the desired section:
Sachets containing 10 g of yellow, odourless granules for top dressing. Each sachet contains 1.5 g of Suxibuzone (microencapsulated). Also contains quinoline yellow (E104)
Dosage and administration
For oral administration. When added to a portion of feed the product will be accepted by most horses. Ensure free access to drinking water during treatment. Do not exceed the stated dose or duration of treatment. Dosage should be kept to a minimum for alleviation of symptoms
For a 480 kg horse: administer 2 sachets twice daily for 2 days. This is equivalent to 12.5 mg suxibuzone/kg/day.
Follow by administering 1 sachet twice daily for 3 days (equivalent to 6.25 mg suxibuzone/kg/day).
Thereafter, administer 1 sachet daily (equivalent to 3.1 mg suxibuzone/kg/day) or on alternate days or the minimum dose necessary for a satisfactory clinical response.
Administer half the recommended dose for horses. Adjust the dose carefully according to bodyweight. For a 240 kg pony: administer 1 sachet daily for 2 days (equivalent to 6.25 mg of suxibuzone/kg/day).
Follow by administering ½ sachet daily for 3 days (equivalent to 3.1 mg of suxibuzone/kg/day) or 1 sachet each day on alternate days. Thereafter, reduce the dose to the minimum dose necessary for a satisfactory clinical response.
Further administration advice
For administration of less than one sachet, use the measuring scoop provided. One full level scoop contains 5 g granules (equivalent to 1/2 sachet) and up to the green line level contains 2.5 g granules (equivalent to 1/4 sachet). Hay, as part of the diet, may delay the absorption of suxibuzone and so the onset of the clinical effect. It is advisable not to feed hay immediately prior to, or with Danilon Equidos. If no clinical response is evident after 4-5 days of treatment, discontinue treatment and reconsider the diagnosis.
Contra-indications, warnings, etc
Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. Treated horses may never be slaughtered for human consumption. The horse must have been declared as not intended for human consumption under national horse passport legislation.
Do not administer to animals with renal, hepatic or cardiac disorders, where there is the possibility of gastro-intestinal ulceration or bleeding, or where there is evidence of a blood dyscrasia or hypersensitivity to the product.
Avoid use in dehydrated, hypovolemic or hypotensive animals as there is an increased risk of renal failure.
After continuous use, or when used at high doses, gastro-intestinal changes may occur. Occasionally, blood dyscrasias and renal alterations may be found, especially in animals with restricted access to water.
Use in very young (less than 12 weeks) or aged animals may involve additional risk. Ensure accurate assessment of dose to body weight and closely monitor clinical response.
Studies have not been carried out in the horse to establish safe use during pregnancy and lactation.
NSAIDs can inhibit phagocytosis and hence, in the treatment of inflammatory conditions associated with bacterial infections, appropriate antimicrobial treatment should also be used.
In case of accidental continuous overdose, the following symptoms may occur: thirst, depression, anorexia and weight loss; gastro intestinal disorders (irritation, ulcers, diarrhoea and faecal blood); altered blood profiles and haemorrhages; hypoproteinaemia with ventral oedema causing hemoconcentration, hypovolemic shock and circulatory collapse; renal failure and fluid retention.
If signs of intolerance appear, discontinue administration and apply symptomatic treatment.
A slow intravenous infusion of a solution of sodium bicarbonate, which leads to urine alkalinisation, increases the clearance of the product.
Suxibuzone and its metabolites may be highly bound to plasma proteins and compete with other highly bound drugs eg. (sulphonamides, warfarin) or may itself be displaced to produce an increase of non-bound pharmacologically active concentrations which could lead to toxic effects Concurrent administration of other highly bound drugs will lead to an increase of non-bound plasma concentrations, which may lead to toxic effects. Drug compatability must be closely monitored when adjunctive therapy is required.
Do not administer concurrently with other NSAIDs or within 24 hours of other NSAIDs.
Concurrent administration of potentially nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided.
Wear suitable gloves. Wash hands after use. Use in a well-ventilated area. Avoid inhaling any dust when opening sachet and mixing with feed. In case of accidental contact with eyes, wash immediately with plenty of clean water. In case of accidental ingestion, seek medical advice immediately.
For animal treatment only. Keep out of the reach and sight of children
After opening a sachet re-seal as well as possible between doses. Once opened, use within 7 days. This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions
Do not administer to horses prior to taking part in a competition
Suxibuzone is a prohibited substance under international equine competition rules. Treatment with Danilon Equidos should be stopped for a suitable time prior to competing. Follow RCVS guidance on elimination times for various anti-inflammatory drugs. Suxibuzone is a NSAID with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties and low ulcerogenic potential. Its mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase. The therapeutic effects are mainly due to the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which act as peripheral mediators of pain and trigger the synthesis of endogenous pyrogens and mediators in the inflammatory process. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. After oral administration, suxibuzone is readily absorbed and it is metabolized by the hepatic microsomal system. As happens with other NSAIDs, the duration of the clinical response is much longer than the plasma half-life. Significant concentrations of both active metabolites are found in synovial fluid for at least 24 hours after administration.
Free flowing white/cream powder for oral administration, containing per sachet:
Active substance: Micro-encapsulated Phenylbutazone 1 g
Preservative: Sodium paracombin 0.15 % w/w
Sodium paracombin contains: Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 31.5 % w/v, Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate 27.5 % w/v, Propyl parahydroxybenzoate 19.7 % w/v
Equipalazone® 1 g oral powder is indicated in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in horses and ponies where the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of phenylbutazone can offer relief, for example, in lameness associated with osteoarthritic conditions, acute and chronic laminitis, bursitis and carpitis, and in the reduction of post-surgical soft tissue reaction
Dosage and administration
For oral administration only. Dependent on individual response, but as a guide:
Horses:450 kg (1000 lb) body weight:
Two sachets to be administered twice on day one (equivalent to 8.8 mg/kg/day) followed by one sachet twice daily for four days (4.4 mg/kg/day), then one sachet daily or on alternate days sufficient to keep the horse comfortable (2.2 mg/kg/day).
Ponies:225 kg (500 lb) body weight:
One sachet (4.4 mg/kg/day) on alternate days.
Adjust dose according to body weight.
Discontinue treatment if no response is evident after four to five days treatment.
For ease of administration, Equipalazone® 1 g oral powder should be mixed with a small quantity of feed
Contraindications, warnings, etc
Not to be used in horses intended for human consumption. Treated horses may never be slaughtered for human consumption. The horse must have been declared as not intended for human consumption under national horse passport legislation.
The therapeutic index of phenylbutazone is low.
Do not exceed the stated dose or the duration of treatment.
Do not use in animals suffering from cardiac, hepatic or renal disease, where there is the possibility of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding, or where there is evidence of a blood dyscrasia or hypersensitivity to the product.
Do not administer other NSAIDs concurrently or within 24 hours of each other.
Some NSAIDs may be highly bound to plasma proteins and compete with other highly bound drugs to produce an increase in non-bound pharmacologically active concentrations, which can lead to toxic effects.
Use in any animal less than six weeks of age, or in aged animals, may involve additional risk. If such use cannot be avoided, animals may require a reduced dosage and careful clinical management.
Avoid use in any dehydrated, hypovolaemic or hypotensive animal as there is a risk of increased toxicity.
Concurrent administration of potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g. aminoglycoside antibiotics) should be avoided.
It is preferable that NSAIDs which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis are not administered to animals undergoing general anaesthesia until fully recovered.
Gastrointestinal tract ulceration may be exacerbated by corticosteroids in animals given NSAIDs.
The safety of phenylbutazone in pregnancy has not been established. Use during pregnancy should be avoided whenever possible, particularly during the first trimester.
Response to long-term therapy should be monitored at regular intervals by a veterinary practitioner.
Overdose:The therapeutic index of phenylbutazone is low. In man, charcoal haemoperfusion in conjunction with dopamine has been used to treat overdosage with phenylbutazone, but there is no experience of this technique in the horse.
Incompatibilities:There are no known incompatibilities. Equipalazone® Powder should only be mixed with dry foodstuffs, to prevent premature solution of the encapsulation coat.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals:The product should be handled with care at all times to reduce the risk of accidental ingestion, skin contact or dust inhalation. If accidental skin or eye contact occurs, the site should be washed immediately with water. If the product is ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the product packaging.
Advice to doctors: gastric lavage (emesis in children) should be performed urgently. Charcoal haemoperfusion has also been shown to be beneficial. Treatment should then be administered symptomatically.
General precautions:For animal treatment only.
Keep out of the reach and sight of children.
NSAIDs can cause inhibition of phagocytosis and hence in the treatment of inflammatory conditions associated with bacterial infections appropriate concurrent antimicrobial therapy should be instigated.
Withdrawal period:Not to be used in horses intended for human consumption. Treated horses may never be slaughtered for human consumption. The horse must have been declared as not intended for human consumption under national horse passport legislation.
Do not store above 25°C. Store in a dry place.
Disposal:Dispose of any unused product and empty containers in accordance with guidance from your national waste regulation authority.
When mixed with a concentrate feed, the product was shown to be palatable to horses.
The clinical effect of phenylbutazone can be evident for at least three days following cessation of administration. This should be borne in mind when examining horses for soundness.
Some authorities (including the Jockey Club) regard phenylbutazone as a "prohibited substance" under the rules of competition. Therefore, use of this product in a competition horse should be in accordance with the recommendations/advice of the relevant competition authorities.
To be supplied only on veterinary prescription.
Veterinary medicinal product authorised for use in UK and IE.
Tablet - Pink, modified rectangular shape scored tablet. Each tablet contains 1.0 mg pergolide (as pergolide mesylate 1.31 mg).
For the treatment of clinical signs associated with Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction, PPID (Equine Cushing's Disease).
Dosage and administration
To be administered orally, once daily, by dissolving the tablet with a small amount of water and/or mixing with molasses or other sweetener. Tablets dissolved in water should be administered with a syringe. Administer the whole amount immediately.
The average starting dose is 2 µg pergolide/kg body weight. Studies from the published literature cite the most common, average dose as 2 µg pergolide/kg with a range from 0.6 - 10 µg pergolide/kg (0.25 mg - 5 mg total daily dose per horse). The starting dose (2 µg pergolide/kg) should then be titrated according to the individual response as determined by monitoring (see below). Starting doses are recommended as follows:
Most horses respond to therapy and are stabilised at an average dose of 2 µg pergolide/kg body weight. Clinical improvement with pergolide is expected within 6 to 12 weeks. Horses may respond clinically at lower or varying doses; it is therefore recommended to titrate to the lowest effective dose per individual based on response to therapy, whether it is effectiveness or signs of intolerance. Some horses may require doses as high as 10 µg pergolide/kg body weight per day. In these rare situations, appropriate additional monitoring is advised.
Monitoring and dose titration
It is recommended to perform diagnostic endocrinologic laboratory tests (dexamethasone suppression test or ACTH test) prior to treatment. Following initial diagnosis, repeat endocrinologic testing for dose titration and monitoring of treatment at intervals of 4 to 6 weeks until stabilisation or improvement of clinical signs and/or diagnostic testing occurs. Clinical signs are: hirsutism, polyuria, polydipsia, muscle wasting, abnormal fat distribution, chronic infections, laminitis, sweating, etc. The approach to treatment is the dose titration to the lowest effective dose per individual, based on response to therapy, whether it is effectiveness or signs of intolerance. Depending on the severity of the disease, time to treatment response may vary among individuals. If clinical signs or the diagnostic testing have not yet improved at the first 4 to 6 week interval, the total daily dose may be increased by 0.5 mg. In case clinical signs have improved but are not yet normalised, the veterinarian may decide to titrate or not to titrate the dose, considering the individual's response/tolerance to the dose. In case clinical signs are not adequately controlled (clinical evaluation and/or diagnostic testing) it is recommended to increase the total daily dose by 0.5 mg increments every 4 to 6 weeks until stabilisation occurs and if the drug is tolerated at that dose. If signs of dose intolerance develop, treatment should be stopped for 2-3 days and reinstated at one-half of the previous dose. The total daily dose may then be titrated back up to the desired clinical effect by 0.5 mg increments every 2-4 weeks. If a dose is missed, the next scheduled dose should be administered as prescribed. Following stabilisation, regular clinical assessment and diagnostic testing should be performed every 6 months to monitor treatment and dose.
Contra-indications, warnings, etc
Do not use in horses with hypersensitivity to pergolide mesylate or other ergot derivatives.
Do not use in horses less than 2 years of age.
Appropriate endocrinologic laboratory tests (dexamethasone suppression test or ACTH test) should be conducted as well as evaluation of clinical signs in order to establish a diagnosis of PPID. As the majority of cases of PPID are diagnosed in horses over the age of 15 years, other pathological processes are frequently present. Close monitoring for health and wellness during treatment should be carried out. Potential adverse reactions in horses include inappetence, transient anorexia and lethargy, mild central nervous system signs (e.g. mild depression and mild ataxia), diarrhoea and colic. If signs of dose intolerance develop, treatment should be stopped for 2-3 days and reinstated at one-half of the previous dose. The total daily dose may then be titrated back up to the desired clinical effect by 0.5 mg increments every 2-4 weeks.
Use with caution if the product is co-administered with other drugs known to affect protein binding. Do not As the majority of cases of PPID are diagnosed in horses over the age of 15 years, other pathological processes are frequently present. Close monitoring for health and wellness during treatment should be carried out. Potential adverse reactions in horses include inappetence, transient anorexia and lethargy, mild central nervous system signs (e.g. mild depression and mild ataxia), diarrhoea and colic. If signs of dose intolerance develop, treatment should be stopped for 2-3 days and reinstated at one-half of the previous dose. The total daily dose may then be titrated back up to the desired clinical effect by 0.5 mg increments every 2-4 weeks.
Use during pregnancy and lactation
Pregnancy: use only according to the benefit/ risk assessment by the responsible veterinarian. The safety has not been demonstrated in pregnant mares. Laboratory studies in mice and rabbits have not produced any evidence of teratogenic effects. At higher doses, reduced fertility was seen in mice.
Lactation: the use is not recommended in lactating horses, in which the safety of this product has not been demonstrated. In mice, reduced body weights and survival rates in the progeny were attributed to the pharmacological inhibition of prolactin secretion resulting in lactation failure.
Not authorised for use in horses intended for human consumption. The horse must have been declared as not intended for human consumption under national horse passport legislation. Not authorised for use in mares producing milk for human consumption.
In case of accidental ingestion, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician. Do not induce vomiting. People with known hypersensitivity to pergolide or other ergot derivatives should avoid contact with the veterinary medicinal product and should not administer it. Splitting or crushing pergolide tablets may cause eye irritation, an irritating smell, or headache. Minimise exposure risks when splitting tablets. Tablets should not be crushed. In case of contact with skin, wash exposed skin with water. In the event of pergolide exposure to the eye, flush the affected eye immediately with water and get medical advice. For nasal irritation, move to fresh air and seek for medical attention if breathing difficulty develops. Pregnant or lactating women should wear gloves when administering the product.
Any unused medicines or waste materials should not be disposed of via wastewater or household waste but in accordance with local requirements. Ask your veterinary surgeon how to dispose of medicines no longer required.These measures should help to protect the environment. Do not store above 25°C. Store the blister in the original carton. Do not use after the expiry date stated on the blister or carton after EXP Do not use Prascend if you notice visible signs of deterioration or if the blister is breached. Keep out of the reach and sight of children.
Pergolide is a synthetic ergot derivative and is a potent, long-acting dopamine receptor agonist. Bothin vitroandin vivopharmacological studies have demonstrated the activity of pergolide as a selective dopamine agonist with little or no effect on norepinephrine, epinephrine or serotonin pathways at therapeutic doses. As with other dopamine agonists, pergolide inhibits the release of prolactin. In horses with Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID) pergolide is believed to exert its therapeutic effect by stimulating dopamine receptors. Further, in horses with PPID, pergolide has been shown to decrease the plasma levels of ACTH, MSH and other pro-opiomelanocortin peptides.
Available pharmacokinetic information in the horse is limited to two small studies using oral doses of doses of 2 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg. These studies demonstrated that pergolide is rapidly absorbed with a short time to peak concentration.
Peak concentrations (Cmax) following an exaggerated dose of 10 µg/kg were low and variable with a mean of ~ 4 ng/mL and a mean terminal half life (T1/2) of ~ 6 hours. The median time of peak concentration (Tmax) was ~0.4 hrs and the area under the curve (AUC) was ~ 14 ng*h/ml. The terminal half life in this study was much shorter than reported in humans. This is likely due to the sensitivity of the analytical assay in this study which did not allow for complete elucidation of the concentration - time profile. Therefore the rapid estimated rate of elimination in this study may not be a true reflection of the elimination phase.
In a second study using a more sensitive analytical assay, plasma concentrations following the use dose of 2 µg/kg were very low and variable with peak concentrations ranging from 138 to 551 pg/ml. The peak concentrations occurred at 1.25 +/- 0.5 hr (Tmax). Plasma concentrations from most horses were quantifiable for only 6 hours post dose. However, one horse had quantifiable concentrations through 24 hours. Terminal half-lives were not calculated as there was incomplete elucidation of the plasma concentration-time curve for most horses.
Further information available at the following website: http://www.prascend.co.uk/
White, circular, flat faced tablets with a breakline and PL5 imprinted on one face and CP or DP on the reverse. No data has been provided to demonstrate reproducible halving of the tablets.
Each tablet contains:
Active substance: Prednisolone 5 mg
Prednidale 5 mg tablets are indicated in the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases, including some autoimmune diseases and some neoplastic conditions in cats and dogs. Inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune processes may be involved in cutaneous, alimentary, respiratory, musculo-skeletal and haematological manifestations of disease. They are used for similar disorders in horses.
Dosage and administration
Dose: 0.1-2.0 mg prednisolone per kg body weight per day. The tablets are divisible. The lowest effective dose must be used.
Treatment should not be withdrawn suddenly. A gradual reduction of dosage is recommended.
A single administration may be sufficient for some conditions such as anaphylaxis. Other conditions may require treatment for between one and three weeks at the above dosage levels. Dosage levels should be monitored carefully. Use the lowest effective dose. Alternate-day therapy should be implemented to control symptoms if possible, to minimise the risks of adrenal insufficiency.
For animals with tumours responsive to corticosteroid therapy, higher dose levels may be used based on the surface area of the animal. In some cases, dose levels of 20 mg per m2, reducing to 5 mg per m2, have been found useful. The potential risks associated with these high dose levels should be assessed before commencing treatment.
For oral administration only.
Contraindications, warnings, etc
Do not use in pregnant animals, those suffering from diabetes mellitus, in animals with renal insufficiency or those with corneal ulceration.
Do not use in animals being vaccinated with products containing live organisms. Treatment may render concurrent vaccination inoperative.
Appropriate therapy should be instituted in animals with concurrent bacterial infections. Use of corticosteroids may exacerbate viral infections.
Prolonged use at high dose levels may result in undesirable effects. Do not withdraw corticosteroid therapy suddenly.
Acute overdosage should be treated symptomatically. Serum electrolytes should be monitored. Consideration should be given to the use of antimicrobials due to the potential suppression of the immune system.
Corticosteroids, including prednisolone, have a wide range of effects. Polydipsia, polyuria and polyphagia may develop, particularly during the early stages of therapy. In the longer term, iatrogenic Cushing's disease may develop.
Gastrointestinal ulceration has been reported in animals treated with corticosteroids. Steroids may cause enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly) with increased serum hepatic enzymes.
Administration of single high doses are generally tolerated well, but medium to long term use may provoke reactions.
Corticosteroid therapy may lead to increased time in the healing of wounds and to a reduction in the ability of the body to resist infection. Appropriate anti-infective therapy may be required.
Pharmacologically active dose levels may lead to atrophy of the adrenal cortex, resulting in adrenal insufficiency. This may become apparent particularly after withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment. Adrenal insufficiency may be minimised by institution of alternate-day therapy, if practical. The dosage should be reduced and withdrawn gradually to avoid precipitation of adrenal insufficiency.
Corticosteroids are not recommended for use in pregnant animals. Studies in laboratory animals have shown that administration during early pregnancy may cause foetal abnormalities. Administration during the later stages of pregnancy may cause abortion or early parturition.
Insignificant amounts of prednisolone are generally eliminated in the milk of lactating animals, and therefore such use is not contraindicated.
Gastrointestinal ulceration may be exacerbated by corticosteroids in animals given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Laminitis is a reported side effect of corticosteroid administration. Whilst this is relatively uncommon, horses and ponies that have previously had laminitis may be at higher risk.
Regular veterinary re-evaluation of animals on prolonged courses of prednisolone is recommended.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals:Gloves should be worn to administer the product and you should wash hands immediately after administration of the product.
General precautions:For animal treatment only.
Keep out of the reach and sight of children.
Do not store above 25°C. Store in a dry place. Store in tightly closed original container.
Disposal:Dispose of any unused product and empty containers in accordance with guidance from your local waste regulation authority.
White granules. Each gram of granules contains 16 micrograms of clenbuterol hydrochloride.
Treatment of respiratory disease in horses where airway obstruction due to bronchospasm and/or accumulation of mucus is a contributing factor, and improved mucociliary clearance is desirable. To be used alone or as adjuvant therapy.
1.Acute, sub-acute and chronic infections where the presence of mucus and/or micro-organisms may stimulate bronchospasm or cause airway obstruction and thus increase airway resistance. For example, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and bronchopneumonia alone, or associated with equine influenza and other viral respiratory diseases.
2.Acute, sub-acute and chronic respiratory allergies.
3.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
In cases accompanied by bacterial infection the administration of antimicrobial agents is recommended.
Dosage and administration
Administer 5 g Ventipulmin Granules per 100 kg bodyweight twice daily.
This is equivalent to twice daily administration of 0.8 micrograms clenbuterol per kg bodyweight.
The granules should be added to the feed. A measuring scoop is provided with the 500 g pack. When full, the scoop contains 10 g. A scored line on the scoop indicates a half measure (5 g). Add to feed immediately before administration. Discard any remaining medicated feed.
Treatment should continue for as long as necessary.
Contra-indications, warnings, etc
Known hypersensitivity to the active ingredient. Clenbuterol may cause side effects such as sweating (mainly neck region), muscle tremor, tachycardia, slight hypotension or restlessness. These are typical for β-agonists and occur rarely.
Ventipulmin antagonises the effects of prostaglandin F2α and oxytocin.
Ventipulmin is antagonised by β-adrenergic blocking agents.
If used during pregnancy, treatment must be discontinued at the expected time of delivery since uterine contractions may be abolished under its influence.
Dosages of clenbuterol hydrochloride up to 4 times the therapeutic dose (administered orally) for a period of 90 days caused transient side effects typical for beta2-adrenoceptor agonists (sweating, tachycardia, muscle tremor), which required no treatment. In case of accidental overdose, a β-blocker (such as propranolol) may be used as antidote.
Animals must not be slaughtered for human consumption during treatment. Horses may be slaughtered for human consumption only after 28 days from the last treatment.
This product contains clenbuterol, a β-agonist. Take care to avoid skin contact. In case of skin contact wash affected area thoroughly. If irritation occurs/persists seek medical advice. Take care to avoid accidental eye contact. In the case of accidental eye contact, flush thoroughly with clean water and seek medical advice. When using do not eat, drink or smoke. Wash hands thoroughly after using the product. Avoid inhaling dust.
Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste material derived from such veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
For animal treatment only. Keep out of the reach and sight of children.
Protect from light. Do not store above 30°C.
Screw top polythene bottle containing 500 g granules.
The product contains the active ingredient clenbuterol hydrochloride which is a sympathomimetic amine with a high degree of selectivity for the B2-receptor sites in the body, thus providing intense bronchodilating properties with minimum effect on the cardiovascular system. It has been shown to stimulate mucociliary clearance in horses.
The effects on pulmonary function and clinical response have been assessed in clinical trials with horses suffering from a variety of respiratory conditions.
A marked decrease in intrathoracic pressure, a decrease in respiratory rate, an initial decrease followed by an increase in arterial oxygen partial pressure and clinical improvements were observed.
In addition, a significant reduction in resistance to airflow and a clinical improvement in the animals respiratory pattern were seen.
The active substance is well absorbed following oral administration. Oral and parenteral dose rates are identical at 0.08 micrograms per kg bodyweight.